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Info/Encyclopedia

An electric bicycle also known as an e-bike is a bicycle with an integrated electric motor which can be used for propulsion. Many kinds of e-bikes are available worldwide, from e-bikes that only have a small motor to assist the rider's pedal-power to somewhat more powerful e-bikes which tend closer to moped-style functionality: all, however, retain the ability to be pedaled by the rider and are therefore not electric motorcycles.

E-bikes use rechargeable batteries and the lighter ones can travel up to 25 to 32 km/h (16 to 20 mph), depending on local laws, while the more high-powered varieties can often do more than 45 km/h (28 mph). In some markets, such as Germany as of 2013, they are gaining in popularity and taking some market share away from conventional bicycles, while in others, such as China as of 2010, they are replacing fossil fuel-powered mopeds and small motorcycles.

Depending on local laws, many e-bikes are legally classified as bicycles rather than mopeds or motorcycles. This exempts them from the more stringent laws regarding the certification and operation of more powerful two-wheelers which are often classed as electric motorcycles. E-bikes can also be defined separately and treated under distinct Electric bicycle laws.

E-bikes are the electric motor-powered versions of motorized bicycles, which have been in use since the late 19th century. Some bicycle-sharing systems use them.

History

E-bike 1932 (by Philips & Simplex)

In the 1890s, electric bicycles were documented within various U.S. patents. For example, on 31 December 1895, Ogden Bolton Jr. was granted U.S. Patent 552,271 for a battery-powered bicycle with "6-pole brush-and-commutator direct current (DC) hub motor mounted in the rear wheel". There were no gears and the motor could draw up to 100 amperes (A) from a 10-volt battery.

Two years later, in 1897, Hosea W. Libbey of Boston invented an electric bicycle (U.S. Patent 596,272) that was propelled by a "double electric motor". The motor was designed within the hub of the crankset axle. This model was later re-invented and imitated in the late 1990s by Giant Lafree e-bikes.

This is a bike equipped with an after market electric hub motor conversion kit, with the battery pack placed on the rear carrier rack.

 

By 1898 a rear-wheel drive electric bicycle, which used a driving belt along the outside edge of the wheel, was patented by Mathew J. Steffens. Also, the 1899 U.S. Patent 627,066 by John Schnepf depicted a rear-wheel friction “roller-wheel” style drive electric bicycle. Schnepf's invention was later re-examined and expanded in 1969 by G.A. Wood Jr. with his U.S. Patent 3,431,994. Wood’s device used 4 fractional horsepower motors; connected through a series of gears.

Torque sensors and power controls were developed in the late 1990s. For example, Takada Yutky of Japan filed a patent in 1997 for such a device. In 1992 Vector Services Limited offered and sold an e-bike dubbed Zike. The bicycle included NiCd batteries that were built into a frame member and included an 850 g permanent-magnet motor. Despite the Zike, in 1992 hardly any commercial e-bikes were available.

Yamaha, a Japanese automotive giant built one of the early prototypes of e-bike back in 1989 and invented the pedal assist system in 1993.

Production grew from 1993 to 2004 by an estimated 35%. By contrast, according to Gardner, in 1995 regular bicycle production decreased from its peak 107 million units.

American car icon, Lee Iacocca founded EV Global motors in 1997, a company that produced an electric bicycle model named E-bike SX and it was one of the early efforts to popularize ebikes in the United States.

Some of the less expensive e-bikes used bulky lead acid batteries, whereas newer models generally used NiMH, NiCd, and/or Li-ion batteries, which offered lighter, denser capacity batteries. Performance varies; however, in general there is an increase in range and speed with the latter battery types.

BLDC Bicycle Hub Motor

By 2001 the terms e-bike, power bike, "pedelec", pedal-assisted, and power-assisted bicycle were commonly used to refer to e-bikes. The terms "electric motorbike" or "e-motorbike" refer to more powerful models that attain up to 80 km/h (50 mph).

In a parallel hybrid motorized bicycle, such as the aforementioned 1897 invention by Hosea W. Libbey, human and motor inputs are mechanically coupled either in the bottom bracket, the rear wheel, or the front wheel, whereas in a (mechanical) series hybrid cycle, the human and motor inputs are coupled through differential gearing. In an (electronic) series hybrid cycle, human power is converted into electricity and is fed directly into the motor and mostly additional electricity is supplied from a battery.

By 2007 e-bikes were thought to make up 10 to 20 percent of all two-wheeled vehicles on the streets of many major Chinese cities. A typical unit requires 8 hours to charge the battery, which provides the range of 25 to 30 miles (40 to 48 km),[12] at the speed of around 20 km/h.

As of 2017, electric bicycles sales in the United States have slowed. This is due primarily to lower gas prices.

Classes

Schematic of a Pedelec

Schematic of an E-Bike

Different types of e-bikes

E-bikes are classed according to the power that their electric motor can deliver and the control system, i.e., when and how the power from the motor is applied. Also the classification of e-bikes is complicated as much of the definition is due to legal reasons of what constitutes a bicycle and what constitutes a moped or motorcycle. As such, the classification of these e-bikes varies greatly across countries and local jurisdictions.

Despite these legal complications, the classification of e-bikes is mainly decided by whether the e-bike's motor assists the rider using a pedal-assist system or by a power-on-demand one. Definitions of these are as follows:

  • With pedal-assist the electric motor is regulated by pedaling. The pedal-assist augments the efforts of the rider when they are pedaling. These e-bikes – called pedelecs – have a sensor to detect the pedaling speed, the pedaling force, or both. Brake activation is sensed to disable the motor as well.
  • With power-on-demand the motor is activated by a throttle, usually handlebar-mounted just like on most motorcycles or scooters.

Therefore, very broadly, e-bikes can be classed as:

  • E-bikes with pedal-assist only: either pedelecs (legally classed as bicycles) or S-Pedelecs (often legally classed as mopeds)
    • Pedelecs: have pedal-assist only, motor assists only up to a decent but not excessive speed (usually 25 km/h), motor power up to 250 watts, often legally classed as bicycles
    • S-Pedelecs: have pedal-assist only, motor power can be greater than 250 watts, can attain a higher speed (e.g., 45 km/h) before motor stops assisting, legally classed as a moped or motorcycle (not a bicycle)
  • E-bikes with power-on-demand and pedal-assist
  • E-bikes with power-on-demand only: often have more powerful motors than pedelecs but not always, the more powerful of these are legally classed as mopeds or motorcycles

Pedal-assist only

E-bikes with pedal-assist only are usually called pedelecs but can be broadly classified into pedelecs proper and the more powerful S-Pedelecs.

Pedelecs

The term "pedelec" (from pedal electric cycle) refers to a pedal-assist e-bike with a relatively low-powered electric motor and a decent but not excessive top speed. Pedelecs are legally classed as bicycles rather than low-powered motorcycles or mopeds.

The most influential definition of pedelecs and which are not comes from the EU. EU directive (EN15194 standard) for motor vehicles considers a bicycle to be a pedelec if:

  1. The pedal-assist, i.e. the motorized assistance that only engages when the rider is pedaling, cuts out once 25 km/h is reached, and
  2. When the motor produces maximum continuous rated power of not more than 250 watts (n.b. the motor can produce more power for short periods, such as when the rider is struggling to get up a steep hill).

An e-bike conforming to these conditions is considered to be a pedelec in the EU and is legally classed as a bicycle. The EN15194 standard is valid across the whole of the EU and has also been adopted by some non-EU European nations and also some non-European jurisdictions (such as the state of Victoria in Australia).

Pedelecs are much like conventional bicycles in use and function — the electric motor only provides assistance, for example, when the rider is climbing or struggling against a headwind. Pedelecs are therefore especially useful for people in hilly areas where riding a bike would prove too strenuous for many to consider taking up cycling as a daily means of transport. They are also useful for riders who more generally need some assistance, e.g. for people with heart, leg muscle or knee joint issues.

S-Pedelecs

More powerful pedelecs which are not legally classed as bicycles are dubbed S-Pedelecs (short for Schnell-Pedelecs, i.e. Speedy-Pedelecs) in Germany. These have a motor more powerful than 250 watts and less limited, or unlimited, pedal-assist, i.e. the motor does not stop assisting the rider once 25 km/h has been reached. S-Pedelec class e-bikes are therefore usually classified as mopeds or motorcycles rather than as bicycles and therefore may (depending on the jurisdiction) need to be registered and insured, the rider may need some sort of driver's license (either car or motorcycle) and motorcycle helmets may have to be worn. In the United States, many states have adopted S-Pedelecs into the Class 3 category. Class 3 ebikes are limited to <=750 watts of power and 28 mph.

Power-on-demand and pedal-assist

Some e-bikes combine both pedal-assist sensors as well as a throttle. An example of these is the eZee Torq and Adventure 24+ by BMEBIKES. The motor on this type of e-bike is activated by pushing the throttle or by pedaling.

Power-on-demand only

Some e-bikes have an electric motor that operates on a power-on-demand basis only. In this case, the electric motor is engaged and operated manually using a throttle, which is usually on the handgrip just like the ones on a motorbike or scooter. These sorts of e-bikes often, but not always, have more powerful motors than pedelecs do.

With power-on-demand only e-bikes the rider can:

  1. ride by pedal power alone, i.e. fully human-powered.
  2. ride by electric motor alone by operating the throttle manually.
  3. ride using both together at the same time.

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ELECTRIC BIKE ENCYCLOPEDIA

TERMINOLOGY AND EXPLANATIONS

1) Axle: a rod that serves to attach a wheel to a bicycle and provides support for bearings on which the wheel rotates: see Quick release axle.

2) Battery (eBike): the power source for an eBike and typically comprised of multiple battery cells to equal a determined voltage.

3) Battery Charger (eBike): the eBike charger is specific to the battery. There are multiple chargers and batteries. The charger will discontinue powering when the optimum voltage is achieved. 

4) Bearing: a device that facilitates rotation utilizing small round balls or cylinders between 2 surfaces and thereby reducing friction.

5) Bell: an audible device for warning pedestrians and other cyclists.

6) Belt-drive: alternative to a chain-drive whereas a belt will transmit power from the front crankset sprocket (chainring) to the rear sprocket (freewheel) vs a chain.

7) BMS (Battery Management System): the electronic system that manages a rechargeable battery. It protects the battery from operating outside its safe operating area and controlling its environment by limiting the charge and discharge of the battery. The BMS may also store and communicate data, authenticate the battery and balance the cells when charging.

8) Bottle cage: a holder attached to the frame for a water bottle.

9) Bottom bracket (frame – shell): frame member – the bottom bracket (shell) is the frame component found at the end of the seat tube, down tube and chain stays. It holds the bottom bracket bearing set that mount’s the bicycle’s crankset.

10) Bottom bracket (component): The bearing system that the pedals (and cranks) rotate around. Contains a spindle to which the crankset is attached and the bearings themselves. There is a bearing surface on the spindle, and on each of the cups that thread into the frame. The bottom bracket fits inside the bottom bracket shell, which is part of the bicycle frame. There are different types such as square tapered and power spline. The square tapered has a square end spindle and the crankarm compresses onto the spindle as it tapers. The power spline is a rigid spindle where the crankarm matches the rigids of the spindle when inserting.

11) Brakes: devices used to stop or slow down a bicycle. Rim (V) brakes and disc brakes are operated by brake levers, which are mounted on the handlebars: see Rim brakes and Disc brakes.

12) Brake levers: levers on the handlebar for actuating a bicycle brake system. Mechanical brake levers pull a cable to actuate the brakes. Hydraulic brake levers force hydraulic fluid through a hose to push the piston of a caliper out see: Disc brakes and Hydraulic disc brakes.

13) Braze-on: a fitting protruding from a frame to provide attachment, typically for cable housings or tire pumps and similar accessories.

14) Cable guides: a fitting on the frame which manage and guide derailleur or brake cables and housings.

15) Cable: a metal cable enclosed in part by a metal and plastic housing that is used to connect a control, such as a brake or shifting lever, to the device it activates.

16) Cartridge bearing: a type of protected and self-contained bearing set where roller bearings are sandwiched in between two bearing rings called races. They are not serviceable and must be replaced as a unit. In the case of a headset, the bearing would be pressed into the head tube or head tube cup and the steerer tube would insert through the inner race: see Bearings and Sealed bearings.

17) Cassette: a group of stacked sprockets (cogset) ranging from a small amount to large amount of chain teeth, thereby adjusting the gear ratios to the rider. The cassette slides onto the rear wheel free hub of a bicycle. See Freehub.

18) Chain: a system of interlinking pins, plates and rollers that transmits power from the front sprocket (chainring) to the rear sprocket (freewheel or cassette).

19) Chain guard: protective cover for the crankset designed to keep clothing from fouling the chain.

20) Chainring: (one of the) front gear(s), attached to a crank arm set.

21) Chain stays: frame member – a pair of tubes that mount the frame’s bottom bracket to the rear fork ends / dropouts. The chain stays run parallel to the chain.

22) Chain tensioner: an optional device to maintain proper chain tension.

23) Controller: a component often considered the brain of the bicycle. The controller governs the manner of performance from an electric motor. It protects the motor, regulating the speed and torque of the motor. The battery, throttle/pedelec sensor and motor connect to the controller.

24) Crankset: composed of two crank arms, at least one chainring and optional chain guard. The crankset attaches the bicycle via the bottom bracket: see Bottom bracket. It is the component of the drive train the converts the reciprocating motion of the rider’s legs into rotational motion used to drive the chain or belt, turning the rear wheel. Pedals attach to the crank arms.

25) Derailleur: an assembly of levers and gears, usually cable actuated, that moves the chain between sprockets on a cassette/multi-speed freewheel or chainring assembly. The rear derailleur mounts to the frame dropout via the dropout hangar (See Derailleur hangar) and the front derailleur mounts to the frame’s seat tube via a braze on or seat tube clamp.

26) Derailleur hanger: a removable mount attached to the rear frame dropout. The mount serves to attach the derailleur to the frame in a specific position. Removable in case it breaks and avoiding the need to replace the frame.

27) Direct drive hub motor: a hub motor where the axle is the stator of the motor and the hub spins over the stator, floating on 2 sealed bearings. There is no reduction of gears with rpm of the motor being equal to the rotation of the tire: 1 to 1. Advantages are: simplistic design, minimal noise (noiseless), high wattage. Disadvantages are: weight, size, magnetic resistance (not under power). Direct drive motors are also brushless hall sensor motors: see Hall sensors.

28) Disc Brakes: brakes where the caliper mounts over a disc rotor attached to the wheel hub. Upon actuating the brake levers, brake pads, one on each side of the rotor are compressed together causing friction against the rotor to slow the bicycle down: see Mechanical disc brakes and Hydraulic disc brakes.

29) Down tube: frame member – the tube mounting the head tube (steering) to the bottom bracket shell (crankset).

30) Dropouts: a frame’s rear fork end or a front fork end that the wheel axles mounts to. Rear dropouts are frame members and mount to the seat and chain stays.

31) Dynamo: bicycle lighting component, also known as generator: see Hub dynamo.

32) Eyelet (frame): attachment point on frame, fork, or dropout for fenders, racks, etc. Similar to braze ons.

33) Eyelet (wheel): a stainless steel grommet protecting a small rim hole in which a spoke nipple passes through the rim so it may attach to a spoke.

34) Fender: curved pieces of metal or plastic above the tires which catch and redirect road spray thrown up by the tires, allowing the rider to remain relatively clean. May come in pairs.

35) Ferrule: a metal or plastic sleeve used to terminate the end of a cable housing.

36) Folding Hinge: a locking mechanism with a safety latch which when released, will allow the bicycle to fold in half. The hinge is welded to the frame with a secondary interior tube, creating 2 full weld points.

37) Fork: a frame component that integrates a bicycle’s frame to its front wheel and handlebars, allowing steering by virtue of its steerer tube. May be rigid or suspension: see Suspension fork.

38) Fork end (dropout): paired slots on a fork or frame at which the axle of the wheel is attached: see Dropout.

39) Frame: the mechanical core of a bicycle, the frame provides points of attachment for all the various components that make up the completed bicycle. Sections include: see top tube, head tube, down tube, bottom bracket, seat tube, chain stays, seats stays and rear dropouts: see Dropouts.

40) Freehub: a ratcheting assembly attached to a hub or hub motor onto which a cassette is slid on. The freehub allows the bicycle to coast without the pedals turning or pedals turning in reverse and lock when pedaling forward.

41) Freewheel: an assembly that incorporates one or more cogs/sprockets and allows the bicycle to coast without the pedals turning. A freewheel is threaded onto a fixed hub or hub motor and contains the ratcheting system unlike a free hub which is the ratcheting system only.

42) Full suspension: a bicycle that has both a front suspension fork and rear shock.

43) Geared hub motor: a hub motor where the hub is powered through a reduction via planetary gears. The reduction is typically 5 to 1 allowing the motor to spin at a much higher rpm than the hub itself. The higher rpm creates additional torque, thereby reducing the size and weight of the motor when compared to a direct drive motor. Advantages are (slightly) higher torque for hill climbing, free hub spinning (no resistance when pedaling not under power), smaller size and lower weight. Disadvantages are complex planetary gear system (added service issue), noisy (whining sound from gears). Geared hub motors are also brushless hall sensor motors: see Hall sensors.

44) Grips: a rubber or leather sleeve around the end of the handlebars so as to provide padding and grip. May include lock rings to lock grips in place: see Grip lockring.

45) Grip lockring: a ring, usually anodized aluminum, of varying colors, that serves to retain the grip in place via a tightening bolt.

46) Gusset: plates added to the outsides of frame tubes to strengthen joints. These are commonly seen on folding bicycles at the hinge and mountain bicycles at the head tube.

47) Hall sensors: a 3 phase motor sensor system measuring the motor’s stator position, communicating it back to the controller to spin the motor in the right direction and at the right time for efficiency. Hall sensors allow powering the motor through alternating currents through the stator windings for smooth acceleration.

48) Handlebar: a lever attached, usually using an intermediary stem, to the steerer tube of the fork. Allows steering and provides a point of attachment for controls and accessories.

49) Handlebar grips: a rubber or leather sleeve around the end of the handlebars so as to provide padding and grip: see Grips. May include lock rings to lock grips in place

50) Hard tail: a bicycle with front suspension only.

51) Head tube: frame member – the front facing tube that contains the headset and that the fork steerer tube slides through. Mounts to the top tube and down tube.

52) Headset: the bearings that form the interface between the frame and fork steerer tube.

53) Headset Spacer: an aluminum ring sliding over the fork steerer tube, to space the mounting position of the stem. There are typically 4 to 5 spacers equaling 35-40mm of displacement space. The stem can be mounted higher or lower on the steerer tube by placing the spacers underneath or above the stem.

54) Hub: the core of a wheel containing bearings and the axle, whether quick release or solid. The hub has drilled flanges for attachment of the spokes. Typically made of aluminum.

55) Hub dynamo: a generator inside one of the hubs for powering lights.

56) Hub Motor: an electric motor incorporated in the wheel of an eBike to drive it: see Direct drive hub motor and Geared hub motor.

57) Hydraulic disc brakes: brakes where the piston’s pushing force is actuated by hydraulic fluid being forced outwards when pulling the brake lever.

58) Inner tube: a rubber/butyl tube that contains air to inflate a tire. Has a Schrader or Presta valve for inflation and deflation. Comes in various sizes to match the tire’s size.

59) Internal gear hub: a gearbox mounted inside the hub. Cable operated by one or two cables.

60) Kickstand: a folding attachment used for assisting a bicycle to stand up on its own. Usually mounts to frame near the bottom bracket, sometimes near rear dropouts.

61) Locknut: a nut designed not to loosen due to vibration.

62) Lockring: a ring, usually metal, of varying design, that serves to retain a component in place, such as grips: see Grip lockring.

63) Luggage carrier: any accessory equipment designed to carry tools, gear or cargo.

64) Master link: a bicycle chain accessory that allows convenient removal and reconnection of an installed bicycle chain without the need for a chain tool.

65) Mechanical disc brakes: brakes where the piston’s pushing force is actuated by an arm’s movement when pulling the brake cable via the brake lever.

66) Mid-Drive Motor: a motor system powering an electric bicycle via the crankset. The motor system replaces the bottom bracket and often the crankset itself. Power is applied to the rear wheel, propelling the bike forward via a traditional drivetrain such as a derailleur and cassette gear system or internal gear hub.

67) Nipple: a specialized nut that attaches a spoke to a wheel rim.

68) NuVinci HUB: a continuous variable transmission inside the rear wheel hub that offers seamless shifting via a friction point following the circumference of a ball bearing from center to side. If the friction point is at the center of the ball bearing, where the circumference is largest, it would simulate the larger sprocket of a gear cassette. If the friction point is at the edge/side of the ball bearing, where the circumference is the smallest, it would represent the smaller sprocket in a traditional gear cassette. Imagine the ball bearing as a flat circle, the center is the widest point while the edge is the shortest point and notice how this compares to a gear cassette where sprockets/cogs are aligned from large to small.

69) Open Guides: an open fitting on the frame which guides a derailleur cable, brake cable/hose, or wire harness: see Cable guide.

70) Pannier: zippered storage bags that mount to sides of luggage racks. Pronounced pan-ear, or pan-yer.

71) Pedal: platform component that mounts to the crank arm and accepts the rider’s force in spinning the crank arm. There are various types such as a folding version.

72) Pedelec: powering a bicycle via sensors at the bottom bracket / crankset. There are 2 versions, cadence and torque. Cadence are the most basic and considered inefficient, dangerous and low quality unless combined with a wheel rotation sensor. Cadence sensors alone are typically found on inexpensive Chinese eBikes marketed in the USA under various brands. The cadence sensor powers the bicycle based on the rotation of the crankset with no regard for speed or gear position. The Torque sensor is a more efficient system powering the motor according to the amount of force exerted from a rider’s legs onto the pedals. Torque sensors offer a natural and realistic approach to powering an ebike via the crankset.

73) Peg (BMX Only): short metal tube fastened to one or both ends of the wheel axles to either enable the rider perform certain tricks or provide a place for extra riders to stand or rest.

74) Pivot: an axle or spindle at the center of a rotation or movement. Can be the mount of a V-Brake caliper or spindle/axle at the point of rotation for a rear suspension arm.

75) Quick release: a skewer with a cam lever on one end that loosens axle when the lever is flipped. Used for releasing wheels and seat posts: see Quick release axle.

76) Quick release axle: a wheel axle where a quick release skewer can release a wheel tool free and without completely removing the axle.

77) Rack: a rack that attaches behind the seat, usually with stays to the rear dropouts that serves as a general carrier.

78) Rear shock: a rear suspension shock absorber for a full suspension soft tail bicycle.

79) Reflector: reflects light to make bicycle evident when the illuminated by headlights of other vehicles. Usually required by law.

80) Rim: that part of a wheel to which the tire is attached and forms part of the braking mechanism in Rim (V) brakes. Rims are typically multi-walled with double or triple walls of aluminum for strength. Walls create a box like construction, increasing the stiffness and durability of the rims.

81) Rim (V) Brakes: brakes where caliper arms mounted to pivots are squeezed together forcing brake pads to friction against the edge/lip of a wheel’s rim to slow down a bicycle.

82) Rotor: the disc of a disc brake system. The rotor is attached at the hub of a wheel and has 2 pads squeezed on both sides simultaneously to slow down a bicycle.

83) Saddle or Seat: what a bicyclist sits on. There are various styles with wider saddles preferred by riders whom limit their pedaling and prefer added support. Riders who pedal frequently prefer narrow saddles to clear their thigh movement. Short nose saddles are typically women saddles while long nose are mens. Openings or center spacing ease the pressure on the perineum.

84) Saddle rails: the 2 elongated metal rods at the underside of the saddle which mount it to the seatpost. The long rails allow for the sliding adjustment from front to back of the saddle before locking into position.

85) Sealed Bearings: a type of protected and self-contained bearing set where roller bearings are sandwiched in between two bearing rings called races. The races are sealed with covers (typically made of a composite or steel) on both sides and remain dirt free. The sealed covers are what differentiates in from cartridge bearings. They are not serviceable and must be replaced as a unit. Deep Groove bearings have deep channeled races allowing for higher radial forces. See Cartridge bearings and Bearings.

86) Seat clamp: a clamp usually made of aluminum with a locking quick release arm that tightens the frame around the seatpost. When open, allows the seatpost to slide up and down the frame’s seat tube, adjusting the saddle height.

87) Seat tube: frame member – the vertical tube running from the seat clamp to the bottom bracket. The seat tube holds the seatpost, which adjust up and down for a rider’s height. The seat stays and top tube also mount to the seat tube.

88) Seatpost: a post that the saddle is mounted to. It slides into the frame’s seat tube and is used to adjust the ride height depending how far into the seat tube it is inserted. A seat clamp mounted to the seat tube will lock the seatpost in position. The seatpost typically incorporates a saddle mount that allows for the adjustment of the saddle from front to back via the saddle’s rails, and rotating the nose up or down before locking the saddle into position.

89) Seat stays: frame member – a pair of small diameter tubes mounting the top of frame’s seat tube to the rear dropouts.

90) Shifter: a control component mounted to the handlebar which will shift the derailleur into the desired gear.

91) Soft tail: a bicycle with a rear shock.

92) Spindle: an axle around which a pedal rotates; screws into crank arms.

93) Spoke: connects the wheel rim to the hub. Usually stainless steel wire with one end swaged to form a head and one threaded end. A typical wheel has 36 spokes.

94) Steerer tube: a tube on top of a fork that is inserted through frame and serves as an axle by means of which the bicycle can be steered.

95) Suspension fork: a frame component that integrates a bicycle’s frame to its front wheel and handlebars, allowing steering by virtue of its steerer tube. A suspension fork absorbs compression, limits rebounding and often adjustable. Lock outs, lock out compression. The upper legs are named “stanchions”, the “crown” is the part the stanchions are mounted to. The crown is mounted to the steerer tube.

96) Stem (Threaded and Threadless): a component typically made of aluminum and used to attach the handlebars to the steerer tube of a fork. There are threaded and threadless versions of stems. Threaded versions will have a quill (extended arm) that enters into the fork’s steerer tube and adjusts for height via an interior friction bolt. Threadless versions secure over the steerer tube and lock in place by pinch bolts. There are adjustable and folding versions of threaded and threadless stems. Adjustable will allow various angle positions while folding, folds the handle bar sideways to reduce the overall transporting size of the bicycle.

97) Throttle: a control component mounted at the handlebar that either replaces the grip (twist), a portion of the grip (half twist) or next to the grip (thumb). The throttle offers the rider the ability to send a variable signal to the controller to increase or decrease power to the motor.

98) Tire: mounts to the wheels, usually clincher, requiring the use of air in tubes. Various sizes in diameter and widths.

99) Toe clips: a metal or plastic cage attached to a pedal. Usually has an adjustment strap. Secures foot to pedal for increased control and transfer of power.

100) Top tube: frame member – the tube mounting the steerer tube to the seat tube.

101) Torque Plates: a stainless steel plate mounted to the rear dropouts of the frame to displace the rotation torque of the motor axle across the dropout and eliminate undue stress to the dropout axle slot itself. The plate’s design mimics the design of the dropout with the slot equaling the axle’s width.

102) Valve stem: or simply valve: port for adding or releasing air from the inner tube. Two types are commonly used: Presta and Schrader.

103) Wheel: the rim, hub, spokes, tire, tube, etc… completed.

104) Wire harness: a group of wires connecting the electrical components of the bicycle.

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